Hematite is one of the most common minerals. The color of most red and brown rock, such as sandstone, is caused by small amounts of Hematite. It is also be responsible for the red color of many minerals such as Garnet, Spinel, and to some extent, Ruby. Non-crystalline forms of Hematite may be transformations of the mineral Limonite that lost water, possibly due to heat.
* Hiddenite >
Hiddenite is the green gem variety of the mineral Spodumene. Hiddenite was first found in North Carolina in 1879 by William Earl Hidden. Hiddenite is very rare and good gem quality stones can be extremely expensive. North Carolina is the only true source of Hiddenite.
* Ilmenite >
Ilmenite is one of the most important ores of the metal titanium. It is mined as an important industrial mineral in several deposits throughout the world, and many of them are in placer sands. Ilmenite is very similar in structure to Hematite, and is essentially the same as Hematite with roughly half the iron replaced with titanium. Ilmenite is named after the locality of the Ilmen Mountains, which are a part of the Southern Urals of Russia.
* Iolite >
Iolite is the gemstone quality variety of the mineral Cordierite. Iolite is fairly new on the gem market, and is usually light to deep blue in color also having a purple hue.. The deeper colors are more valuable. The name Iolite comes from the greek term “violet.” Iolite is very affordable and durable.
* Jade >
Jade is the gemstone name for the minerals Jadeite and Nephrite. Both these minerals can be identical in appearance and very similar in physicality. Nephrite is primarily only green, cream, and white in color. Jadeite however comes in many colors and often multicolored. The four varieties of Jade are Chrysomelanite, Imperial Jade, Lavender Jade, and russian Jade.
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